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The first medieval drama that was not intended as a worship ritual and that was written in the vernacular was about Nicholas.
By Adam C. English.
Every year on May 9, one of the Dominican friars charged with the upkeep and care of the Basilica di San Nicola squats down in front of a small opening in the tomb and slowly collects a vile of the myrrh of St. He challenges us at this time of year to give not only to those we know and love, but also to those we do not know and especially to those who find themselves in need.
But the Nicholas story was about a regular family facing a familiar crisis to which ordinary people could relate. He attended the Council of Nicaea in 325 with the other bishops of the Christian empire, where he would have seen the Emperor Constantine.
Editor’s note: Adam C. Under the nose of the Turkish overlords in control of the area 47 Barian sailors disembarked at Myra disguised as pilgrims.. Nicholas. When he heard a bag hit the floor, the father leapt to his feet and raced outside, where he caught the mysterious benefactor.
Christmas exposes atheist divide on dealing with religion
More impressive than its connection with modern-day Santa Claus traditions is the tale’s historical uniqueness. It is then diluted in holy water and bottled for pilgrims and visitors.
Nicholas revealed his identity to the father but made him swear never to tell anyone what he’d done. Nicholas of Myra” (Baylor University Press, 2012) and associate professor of religion at Campbell University.
It’s such a strange and surprising tale that historians assume it must be based to a large degree on fact. Known as the myrrh or manna of St. More churches would be dedicated to him than to any other person except Mary, the mother of Jesus. Nicholas was easy to spot. He did not want praise or recognition for his generosity.
Four years ago, I embarked on a quest to discover the truth about Santa Claus and the original St. My search took me many places, sending me finally across the Atlantic to Bari, on Italy’s Adriatic coast.
So there is a lot more to the story of St. His bold initiative to help three poor girls in need sparked a tradition of gift-giving that has carried into modern times. He feared they would each in turn be forced into prostitution to support themselves.
When medieval Christians looked at the great church frescoes, basilica mosaics and cathedral stained glass pictures of Jesus, Mary, John the Baptist, the apostles and saints of old, there was little to distinguish one saint from another.
Nicholas heard this heartbreaking news and resolved to do something about it. He bagged a sum of gold and in the dead of night, tossed it through the man’s window. The basilica housing that tomb dates to the 11th century. Nicholas.
But St. Nicholas, the liquid was highly valued for its purported miraculous and therapeutic qualities.
The Barians resolved that his bones be moved, or “translated,” to use the expression of the day. It is the tale of three poor daughters.
The old town of Bari is a brambly, medieval maze of streets and alleyways that cross and crisscross. If you keep wandering, though, eventually you pop out onto a plaza and see the Basilica di San Nicola.
The bones were taken back to Italy and a basilica was erected in Bari to house them. The magical Christmas Eve visits from Santa Claus represent the vestige of this old story. He was always pictured carrying three bags of gold. Nicholas, hiding swords and shovels under their clothes. You can go into the basilica and pray, rest or just gawk, but the real show lies below.
Indeed, Nicholas would become the most popular nonbiblical saint in the pre-modern church. It is said that the city was intentionally constructed in a topsy-turvy way so that anyone trying to raid it would get swallowed and lost in its labyrinth. The money was used as a dowry for the first daughter.
Nicholas had been aware of a certain citizen of Patara – in Lycia, modern-day Turkey – who had once been an important and wealthy man of the city but who had fallen on hard times and into extreme poverty. It seemed only a matter of time before they would plunder the tomb of St. Nick than meets the eye. Instead of fixating on the commercialization and greed that plague the modern Santa Claus, I chose to see in it the lasting power of a simple act of kindness.
When Nicholas returned to deliver anonymously the third bag of gold for the last daughter, the curious father was ready.
The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Adam C. As soon as they entered the church, they barred the doors, smashed the marble cover and looked inside.
No wonder, then, that sailors from Bari wanted his bones. English, Special to CNN
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More than a footnote to the legend of Santa Claus, Nicholas is a model of Christian kindness, an inspiration for charity and a saint to be remembered. Through a grate you will see a large marble and concrete tomb, St Nicholas’ final resting place.
Sometime later, Nicholas made a second nighttime visit so that the second daughter might marry. Later tradition reported that, finding the windows closed, he dropped the bag of gold down the chimney, where it landed into one of the girl’s stockings that was hanging to dry.
The poor man reasoned that it was impossible to marry off his three beautiful daughters because they lacked dowries for proper marriages to respectable noblemen. English is author of “The Saint Who Would Be Santa Claus: The True Life and Trials of St. The vast majority of saint stories that circulated in the early church involved extraordinary miracles and healings or dramatic martyrdoms and confessions of Christ.
He was bishop of the church in Myra in what was then the Roman province of Lycia, Asia Minor. In the 1080s, Seljuk Turks invaded Lycia and Asia Minor (what is now Turkey). The man grew so desperate that he lacked the very essentials of life.
They found more than they had bargained for: Nicholas’ bones were floating in a sweet-smelling liquid like oil or water. Those in the pews had never heard anything like it.
Down dark steps you will enter a candle-lit crypt, built in 1089, supported by 26 marble columns. To this day, Nicholas’ tomb continues to excrete a small amount of watery liquid.
They quietly made their way to the church of St. Nicholas. The story of his helping the three sisters jumped off the dry page of history and into the minds and imaginations of young girls and boys and adults.
Perhaps he would have slipped into obscurity as nothing more than a minor saint – originally he was a patron saint of sailors – except for one unique story that circulated about him shortly after his death.
Little is known for certain about the life of Nicholas, whose name means “the people’s champion.” He was born sometime after the year 260 and died sometime after 333.
They involved monks who went into the desert and experienced the tempting of the devil and the burning of the sun, mothers who’d had their entrails spilled onto the Colosseum floor for Christ, mystics who saw the heavens open in their visions.
And there, in a gray tomb, lies the “real” Santa Claus
All of the cards of your gamers are facing exactly the same way, either down or up according to the rules on the table. It doesn’t matter just what the other players have. hand is usually similar to 21. A card with the dealer has one card uncovered so your gamers can easily see. Keep in mind, a game is about you and your dealer. The first part of twenty-one is the dealer handing out Two cards to every one from the gamers and finally, to him self. It is a biggest house good thing about black jack when you play at internet casinos. Black jack Tutorial
Ever in your life played Black jack? That is considered a counting game where every cards are given their appropriate numeric value. It is essential that you concentrate on your cards and also the dealer’s card while focusing on making a hand that because biggest advantage for winning. It simply gets a push if another card is a twenty-one 10-Ace. Actively playing black jack is strategic and yes it permits you also to turn into analytical and mathematical. Nonetheless, a game of twenty-one is usually a fun and challenging game which gives the pleasure to challenge your house and obtain the opportunity on earning huge.
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The player is allowed to take just as much cards as he wants but he has to be wary about busting or groing through the quantity 21.Care and strategic planning is necessary to prevent busting while ensuring is at your closest value to 21. The main idea of Black jack is to find the top cards that can provide a sum closest or equal to 21, with no going overboard (bust). One other you are facing down. If your hand of the gamer grows to 21, this is called blackjack. The user can lose either by busting or if the dealer’s hand is much more detailed 21. However, if your splits a card, it won’t be highly regarded anymore as twenty-one since they will be individual hands currently. Value of the blackjack is 1.5 events from the bet knowning that suggests a bet of $120 will give you a $170 win. Any hand is beaten with a mix of 10 and Ace choice . However, it the casino dealer and gamblers hands are just 21 or related, then it is considered a push meaning no-one is victorious. The Ace is usually a unique case because it may be valued either 1 or 11 depending on what best suits your hands. Blackjack is all about beating your house. The player is victorious if his number is closer to 21 compared to the hand of the dealer. It doesn’t matter just what cards the rest get
He says a revitalized Underground would generate 2,000 direct jobs and $2.8 billion a year in related tourism.
“It’s just a legal form of gambling now approved by the state,” says O’Leary, 46, managing partner of Underground. The machines would require approval only from the Georgia Lottery Board, which has not yet considered the proposal.
Despite the wretched economy, state and local governments are finding staunch opposition to some gambling proposals.
Thomas Grey, spokesman for StopPredatoryGambling.org doubts the economic benefits. The general public won’t be able to tell the difference” between the terminals and slot machines. “Gambling seems like it’s painless revenue. “We can create a virtual casino experience, but they are video lottery terminals. They figure, if they’re already gambling, why shouldn’t we keep our hand in it?”
O’Leary is selling the proposal as a way to pump an additional $200 million or more a year into the HOPE scholarship program. “Right now states are really competing for revenue,” he says. Efforts to expand gambling by allowing slot machines at race tracks to generate jobs and revenue face a fight from the Granite State Coalition Against Expanded Gambling.
As budget shortfalls hit statehouses and city halls, the lure of gaming is powerful for many politicians, says Boston College professor Richard McGowan, author of the 2008 book The Gambling Debate. Gov. Today, Utah and Hawaii are the only states that have no form of legalized gambling.
Getting approval for a casino in Georgia won’t be easy: The state lottery, which provides college scholarships for Georgians, is the only legal form of gambling. Efforts to bring in everything from horse-racing to gaming tables have foundered.
o Vermont. “With the economy the way it is now, it’s hard for government to argue that people should go gamble, instead of save and invest, pay down debt,” he says. Former state Supreme Court chief justice Roy Moore, who was ousted from the bench after defying a federal judge’s order to remove a 5,200-pound Ten Commandments monument he had installed in the state judicial building in 2001, opposes a plan by the County Commission to allow “machine bingo.”
The latest proposal for this longtime, often troubled Atlanta landmark is the most ambitious: Promoters want to spend $400 million turning Underground into a gleaming gambling edifice featuring 5,500 slot machine-like devices, a 29-story hotel, upscale restaurants and Vegas-style shows.. No legislative approval is required. Among them:
Underground Atlanta — a 12-acre retail and entertainment complex downtown — is like a phoenix, the mythical bird that symbolizes this city that rose from the ashes: Another incarnation is always rising.
A generation ago, Americans had to trek to Las Vegas or Atlantic City to gamble legally.
Business partners Dan O’Leary and John Aderhold, however, think they can circumvent opposition. Gambling machines at Underground wouldn’t be true slots, they say, but “video lottery terminals” managed by the state lottery. The machines look like slots but pay out at a predetermined rate so there’s less random chance.
The lottery would get 50% of gross revenues from the machines. Sonny Perdue, a Republican, opposes gaming. The state auditor proposes putting a casino in Killington or other resort areas to generate funds for roads and bridges, but the Legislature has been cool to the idea.
The jury heard the victim’s account of the terrifying attack she was subjected to, and the judge rendered a sentence. She managed to free herself.. The unnamed woman wept as she recounted her horrific ordeal in court. I told him I had a daughter….I was crying through the whole thing begging him to stop, but he wouldn’t….He stuck the knife into my ribs….He told me that he would stab the life out of me if I didn’t get the money out of my account…I remember saying he raped me, he attacked me; that he had a knife.”
Burns sentenced Ali to five years in jail and also said that Ali should be supervised by the authorities for three years following his release from jail.
He held a knife against her body, sticking it into her ribs, forcing her to perform a sex act before raping her. Faizan Ali, 24, who had a record as a sex offender and is on the Sex Offenders Register, raped a defenseless prostitute at knifepoint in a city park at Edinburgh’s Leith Links on November 14, 2014. According to an article on the Inquisitr, Cosby admitted in a 2006 lawsuit to drugging women he wanted to have sex with. He confessed that he drugged at least one women with Quaaludes. Ali’s forcing himself on her left her feeling “violated and scared,” according to the Daily Record.
Sex Offender Raped Prostitute At Knifepoint: Jailed For Five Years
The judge, Lord Burns, had no sympathy for the attacker, who he noted took advantage of the victim because she was “vulnerable” and a “prostitute.” Burns stated that he hopes that Ali gets the help he needs, but that the public needs to be protected from him-especially because he believes that there is a high likelihood that Ali would commit similar offenses given the chance to do so.
Do you think that the judge’s sentence was long enough? Please leave your comments below.
“I felt violated and scared. He noted that his client had spent time in the state hospital in Carstairs, but was transferred to a mental health facility in Edinburgh.
[Photo Courtesy Police Scotlund]
The victim only escaped when two men walking through the park approached Ali. He then callously forced her to perform another sex act on him. The victim noted that the ordeal seemed to last a “lifetime.” She cried throughout the nightmare, and apparently fearing for her life, she attempted to play on his sympathy, telling him that she has a daughter. He has a history of mental illness and previously lived with his mother. She stated the following, according to the Mirror.
Last month, Ali was convicted of rape. The woman, whose name was withheld because of legal reasons, recounted how Ali repeatedly demanded that she give him money, which she told him she didn’t have on her at the time.
One of the most well-known personalities who is accused of being a sex offender by dozens of women is Bill Cosby. Some of these victims even claim that they were raped.
The defense attorney, Brian Gilfedder, indicated that his client’s status was now stable, as Ali is taking medication for his psychosis. Over 30 women now have come forth claiming that he drugged or attempted to drug and attempted to or did grope or have sex with them. Though never convicted, many now question whether he committed offenses over the years.
Sealed testimony that Bill Cosby probably never expected to be made public was released last week and blew the lid off the beloved comic and television dad’s public persona
Kevlar does not become brittle at very low temperatures, resists flames and weathering, and is nicely flexible for a variety of uses. In the world of beauty, nylon yields good synthetic resins, thickens cosmetics and makes them opaque, lengthens eyelashes, and soaks up superfluous facial oil. Kevlar is usually not affected by solvents, shows no signs of weakness after immersion in boiling water or liquid hydrocarbons even after years of exposure. The severe bruising and internal trauma resulting from gunshot impact will be reduced by this improvement; physical fatigue caused by heavy armor should also be cut considerably.
The Many Uses of Kevlar
Kevlar’s tensile strength makes it a superior and effective defensive device for the walls of panic rooms and aircraft engine compartments, vests, flak jackets, head gear and related equipment for soldiers and police officers. In contrast, Nazi Germany invested heavily in cellulose-based rayon fabrics.Rayon doesn’t provide much protection in the bitter cold and the uniforms made from this material may have contributed to Germany’s failures on the Russian front during harsh winter weather.
Nylon is still used to make much more than just the pantyhose ubiquitously referred to as “nylons.” Various types of clothing, the inner structure of automobile tires, boat sails, upholstery, and carpets all owe a profound debt to Du Pont and Carothers’s very practical and useful polyamide. Humankind’s chemical advances have altered society’s perceptions and expectations. Modern industrial processes generally use high heat and pressure to efficiently produce the polyamide. But then, what on earth ever could? Oh, yeah…
Kevlar: The Super-strong Aromatic Polyamide
Also made by Du Pont, Kevlar is the registered trademark of a specific type of aromatic polyamide copolymer often called an aramid. Within one year of nylon’s birth, 64 million pairs of hosiery made from it hopped off the shelves.
One hundred and twenty years later, London experimenters Charles Cross, Clayton Beadle, and Edward Bevan synthesized viscose silk by forcing high-viscosity liquid through a spinnaret. It took the trusty amide bond and some creative organic chemistry to solve the former problem with Kevlar and the latter with nylon.
The Birth and Development of Nylon: The Definitive Artificial Silk
The first artificial silk was made in the late 1870s by Count Hilaire de Chardonnet, who noticed he could pull long threads from a spilled photographic solution known as collodion. Like nylon, natural silk possesses amide bonds, but is a true pleated-sheet protein with chains mostly composed of the amino acids serine, alanine, and glycine. Otto Rohm, but did not reach the general public until some years later)
Kevlar is not limited to the above herculean tasks alone. In the modern process there is substitution of more reactive dichlorides (such as hexanedioyl dichloride) for dicarboxylic acids. Composed of para-phenylenediamine and terephthalic acid (or its corresponding acid chloride), Kevlar was discovered in 1965 by Stephanie Kwolek, but various synthesis problems delayed its debut. 150 of Hoffman, Roald and Torrence, Vivian, Chemistry Imagined: Reflections on Science, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.
There are now two other types of nylon fibers: nylon 6, produced by the self-condensation of 6-aminohexanoic acid (the original monomer is caprolactam; its ring opens when it polymerizes); and nylon 6, 10, polymerized from 1,6-diaminohexane and decanedioic acid. Nylon proved useful for many military applications such as weather balloons, parachutes, ropes, tire cords, and mosquito netting. Nylon and Kevlar as “un-natural” results of laboratory toil and talent save lives, increase human pleasure/safety in games, make people look better, and quietly change the world one molecule at a time.
Sources Barrie, Alison, “Forget Kevlar! Liquid body armor hardens on impact,” FOX News, April 5, 2012. Caswell, Adam, “Other Uses of Kevlar,” ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu, 2003. Clark, Jim, “Polyamides,” chemguide.co.uk, 2004. Daintith, John, editor, A Dictionary of Chemistry, Third ed., Oxford University Press, 1996. Emsley, John, Molecules at an Exhibition, Oxford University Press, 1998. Le Couteur, Penny and Burreson, Jay, Napoleon’s Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History, New York: Jeremy P. Forty years ago, Kevlar was widely used in Formula 1 racing tires, but the aforementioned problems have led to it being phased out of this application to a certain extent. Kevlar is most important for its effectiveness as body armor and bombproof material and this is due to the super-strong polymer mesh’s absorption of energy from bullets and blasts.. Kevlar has its artistic side, too, when employed in musical instrument components such as reeds and drum heads
Currently, a lighter, thinner, more flexible version of body armor is being developed: 10 layers of Kevlar are combined with a Shear Thickening Liquid, then placed over 31 layers of untreated Kevlar. Despite these negative reasons, Kevlar is well worth its cost.
Kevlar is five times as strong as steel, exceedingly lightweight; does not twist or tear and garments made from it are lightweight and do not burden the wearer. Kevlar will dissolve in pure sulfuric acid, but so do many materials. Kevlar’s strands are powerfully attracted to one another, forming tightly-packed sheets rather than the ordinary mangled mess familiar to polymer enthusiasts everywhere.
The main drawback to Kevlar is its rather exorbitant price. Both use not-so-amazing monomers and the same taken-for-granted amide bond found in all peptides or proteins to produce macromolecules that beat nature at her own game. This substitution causes hydrochloric acid rather than water to be released when the amide bond forms.
The Many Uses of Nylon
Du Pont contributed greatly to the American World War II effort. It finally and fittingly hit the market in 1982, exactly fifty years after the creation of the last bullet-impervious material (i.e., Superman’s chest – of course, just a jest! On a more serious note, the bullet-deflecting material polymethyl methacrylate was first synthesized in 1931 by German chemist Dr. Tarcher/Penguin, 2003. “Macrolab Experiment Making Nylon 6 and 6, 10,” USM Polymer Science Online Laboratory, 1998. “Making the Modern World: Polymer and intermolecular bonds: Kevlar,” The Science Museum, 2004. Sullivan, C.C., “Betting on Kevlar: tomorrow’s wonder material,” smartplanet.com, October 20, 2011. Winter, Ruth, A Consumer’s Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients, New York: Three Rivers Press, 2009.The phrase “polymer centuries” adapted from “polymer century,” which may be found at p. Kevlar also presents other dilemmas since it is difficult to paint, cut, or drill; exhibits poor compression strength; displays susceptibility to degradation/decomposition with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. During the 1950s, it even became the first so-called engineering plastic and was convenient for constructing machine cogs and bearings.
Of course, despite its wartime successes, it can’t stop a bullet. Unfortunately, the polymer in collodion was actually nitrocellulose, so Chardonnet silk had a distressing tendency to burst into flame or explode, giving a whole new meaning to the phrase “a dress to die for.”
The unusual benzene-ring-containing backbone of Kevlar and the hydrogen bonding between the nitrogen-containing group and the oxygen of the carbonyl groups on adjacent chains contribute to its tremendous structural regularity. Kevlar is used for mining conveyor belts, fire-resistant clothing, safety gloves, chemical hoses, tear-proof sails for boats, storm-resistant buildings, mooring ropes for offshore oil rigs, tankers, and even the Mars Pathfinder landing apparatus.
Less than a century ago, a lightweight material strong enough to stop a bullet would have fallen firmly into the realm of science fiction; and attempts at bypassing the silkworm to create manmade sheer-and-sexy stockings were depressingly mired in baggy cellulose-based fabrics. Using apidic acid (hexanedioic acid) and 1,6-diaminohexane, he made “nylon 6,6″ with a simple condensation reaction whose product brilliantly mimicked many of the properties of silk.
Nylon and Kevlar truly exhibit the fun “Merlin the Magician” quality of polymer chemistry. The cellulose polymer produced in this fashion absorbed moisture, though; and saggy fake-silk stockings hardly qualified anybody for the best-dressed list.
Finally, in 1938, Harvard University organic chemist Wallace Carothers polymerized nylon for Du Pont. Kevlar assists people to enjoy the sporting life in: laminates that coat racecar drivers’ survival compartments, tennis and badminton racquets, skis, running shoes, puncture-resistant kayaks and canoes. While nylon perhaps did not have exactly the same sheen as silk, it nonetheless turned out to be almost perfect for stockings since it fitted tightly to the leg, was relatively durable, and could be made available to the public at an affordable price